Saturday, August 17, 2019

The Japanese Culture

The Japanese culture in unlike any other in the world. It has long been known for its excellence in education and its strong background of family and religion.The Japanese culture dates back to 10,000 BC with many fascinating periods and events. They span from the days of the samurai and shogun, to 1945 when the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. Although a bomb would be a devastating blow for any country, rapid industrialization and aid from the United States brought Japan to the forefront of world affairs. Japan is roughly the size of California with a population of 120 million Japanese, 670,000 Koreans and 130,000 of other nationalities. The capital of Japan is Tokyo and the government is a parliamentary democracy, made up of elected representatives. Chinese culture has about five thousand years history which is an extremely long period of time. The Chinese civilization was growing with these periods of time and it will continues greater than ever and it one of the oldest continuous civilizations in history and dominant cultural center of East Asia is China. Chinese Kung Fu, also known as Chinese martial arts, is an important part of traditional Chinese culture. It is probably one of the earliest and longest lasting sports, which utilizes both brawn and brain3Japan's economic freedom score is 72.3, making its economy the 30th freest in the 2018 Index. Its overall score has increased by 2.7 points, with dramatic deficit reduction improving the score for fiscal health and far outpacing a decline in government integrity. Japan is ranked 8th among 43 countries in the Asia–Pacific region, and its overall score is above the regional and world averages.The economy of Japan is a highly developed and market-oriented economy. It is the third-largest in the world by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP), and is the world's second largest developed economy.Japan is a member of the G7. According to the International Monetary Fund, the country's per capita GDP (PPP) was at $37,519, the 28th highest in 2014, down from the 22nd position in 2012. Due to a volatile currency exchange rate, Japan's GDP as measured in dollars fluctuates widely. Accounting for these fluctuations through use of the Atlas method, Japan is estimated to have a GDP per capita of around $38,490.China's economic liberty score is 57.8, making its economy the 110th freest in the 2018 Index. Its overall score has increased by 0.4 point, with developed scores for government honesty and legal effectiveness more than balancing declines in fiscal health, labor freedom, and property rights. China is graded 24th between 43 countries in the Asia–Pacific region, and its overall score is below the regional and world averages.4The low standard of living permits companies in China to pay their workers less than American workers. That makes products cheaper, which lures overseas producers to outsource jobs to China.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Global Financial Institutions Essay

This paper briefly presents the role of global financial institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and Asian Development Bank in the global financing; and examines briefly their influence on exchange rate. International Monetary Fund (IMF) Established in 1944, the IMF has a headquarters in Washington DC. , employs 2,596 staff from 146 countries, and is owned and financed by 185 member countries (IMF, 2008). Its main task is to ensure the stability of the international monetary system—â€Å"the system of exchange rates and international payments that enables countries to buy goods and services from each other† (IMF, 2008). To maintain stability in the international monetary system, it provides (1) advice on appropriate social and economic policies, (2) financing to help member countries cope with balance of payments problems when foreign exchange payments exceed foreign exchange earnings, and (3) technical assistance and training to build needed expertise and institutions to attain economic growth (IMF, 2006). To maintain exchange rate stability, member countries prior to 1971 pegged their exchange rates that could only be adjusted with the IMF’s agreement. Since 1971, member countries can freely select any type of exchange rate arrangement: â€Å"allowing the currency to float freely; pegging it to another currency or a basket of currencies; adopting the currency of another country; or participating in a currency bloc† (IMF, 2006). The World Bank (the Bank) The Bank, established in 1944, has a headquarters in Washington DC with more than 100 country offices, and employs about 10,000 staff. It is owned and financed by 187 member countries (World Bank, 2008). The Bank is made up of two development institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), and (2) the International Development Association (IDA). Each institution has a role in achieving the Bank’s mission of reducing global poverty and improving living standards. The IBRD is responsible for middle income poor countries, while IDA caters to the needs of the poorest countries in the world. Both provide interest-free credit and grants, and low-interest loans to developing countries for infrastructure, health, education, communications, and other purposes (World Bank, 2008). The Bank provides â€Å"local cost financing for projects in non-CFP borrowing countries† with clear indirect foreign costs and â€Å"if a specific project has too little foreign exchange cost to permit the Bank to achieve its project objectives by foreign exchange financing alone† (World Bank, 2007). It also has a project preparation facility that finances foreign exchange costs (World Bank, 2007). Asian Development Bank (ADB) Established in 1966, ADB has a headquarters in Manila with 26 country offices, and employs more than 2,400 staff. It is owned and financed by 67 members with 48 members from the region and other members from other parts of the world (ADB, 2008). As an international development finance institution, it helps its developing member countries reduce poverty and enhance people’s quality of life. It provides assistance to the public sector through grants, low-interest loans, advice, and knowledge as well as to private enterprises through loans, guarantees, and equity investments (ADB, 2008). In making direct loans, ADB assumes the foreign exchange risks involved in private sector operations, but not in public sector lending. To address the foreign exchange risks (e. g. , foreign exchange fluctuations between loan approved amount and disbursement), ADB introduced the LIBOR-based loan, which allows borrowing countries to match the procurement currencies with loan denomination currencies, or convert the loan denomination currencies at any time to match the revenue denomination currencies (ADB, 2004). ADB may also provide financing to meet the â€Å"indirect foreign exchange cost of items procured in local currency for ADB-financed projects with foreign exchange costs† (ADB, 2003). References Asian Development Bank (2008). About ADB. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://www. adb. org/About/default. asp. Asian Development Bank (2004, July 1). Foreign exchange risk. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://www. adb. org/Documents/Manuals/Operations/OMH07_1apr04. pdf. Asian Development Bank (2003, October 29). Financing indirect foreign exchange cost of projects. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://www. adb. org/Documents/Manuals/Operations/OMH07_1apr04. pdf. International Monetary Fund (2008, May). IMF at a glance. Retrieved June 12, 2008, from http://www. imf. org/external/np/exr/facts/glance. htm. International Monetary Fund (2006, September 30). What is IMF? Retrieved June 12, 2008, from http://www. imf. org/external/pubs/ft/exrp/what. htm/. The World Bank (2008). About us. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://web. worldbank. org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/0,,pagePK:50004410~piPK:36602~theSitePK:29708,00. html The World Bank (2007, March 23). Specific expenditure eligibility and cost sharing requirements for investment projects in countries without approved country financing parameters. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://wbln0018. worldbank. org/Institutional/Manuals/OpManual. nsf/22b87a45c65c

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Augustine on creation and Aquinas on the existence of God Essay

In Augustine’s writing, The Confessions, he philosophically attempts to answer the problems that arise within religion, specifically in regards to Judeo Christian beliefs, pertaining to God, time, and creation. Augustine first addresses the belief that God created everything. He tries to provide a coherent explanation for his claim that God’s ex-nihilo (â€Å"out of nothing†) creation of the Earth is a sound statement, given that God created everything, and with it time. Thus, the notion of time never existed before its very point of creation. However, given that God created everything, and thus the universe, what was God doing before the universe’s creation that caused him to decide to create it or that it was now necessary as opposed to before. Furthermore, if God even had to make the decision whether or not the universe’s existence was necessary, making him arbitrary, wouldn’t that inherently falsify the claim that God is a perfect being (omnipotent, omniscient, and omnipresent) and thus is immutable. Augustine objects this claim by stating that God is eternal, in that he is timeless, and so exists outside the realm of time. He is therefore not bound (or defined) by any temporal concept. So, when faced with the problem of what God was doing before he created the universe, Augustine simply claims it is an illogical question. He justifies that if one accepts the belief that God is eternal and created everything, than one can’t logically ask what God was doing at a certain point before the creation of time itself, as it was not yet in existence. Augustine continues the debate on time, by calling its very existence into question. Augustine questions the commonly accepted notion of time by providing his theory of â€Å"presentism,† which basically reduces time into only the present tense. Augustine claims that when people talk in terms of the past, present, and future they’re only really talking about various forms of the present. Augustine tries to explain the various complications that arise when trying to determine the duration of present time. It is difficult to compare two different measurements of time if each period of â€Å"present† time given can be reduced into a minute instance of time that quickly disappears. So, one cannot measure something that has happened, because once it is in the past, it no longer exists. Augustine accepts that their appears to be an irrational aspect of presentism, in that by accepting the present as the only form of time, one would then seemingly have to agree that it wouldn’t make sense to refer to any moment of time occurring in either the past or the future. Augustine rationalizes any reference to the past, by defining it as the minds ability to recall imprinted memories of images left in the mind through the medium of one’s senses. Similarly, the foreseeing of future events is merely the act of prediction based off of things that were already present or previously seen (i.e. the assertion that the sun will rise tomorrow is only based on one’s own previous experience of having already watched the sun rise). Augustine acknowledges the apparent existence of past and future events, and answers the discrepancy by providing alternate terms to use in place of the existing tenses, which are the present of past things, the present of present things, and the present of future things. Furthermore, he redefines the definitions of his terms to mean that the present of past things is memory, the present of present things is attention, and the present of future things is expectation. Augustine continues the problem of measuring time, by recognizing that it would be impossible to measure something, which is not yet real, travels through what doesn’t occupy space, only to become something that is no longer real. He first tries to use the notion that time can be measured in relation to a corporeal object, such as the sun (i.e. a day). Yet, this method is rejected, because if one were to change the time it takes for the sun to rotate the Earth, the time allotted to a day would still remain the same, even if the sun were to set multiple times within a â€Å"days† time frame. Thus, he states that if the motion of any corporeal object is one thing, but the standard in which we measure it is another, time can not based off of any movement of a corporeal object. He then replaces this method of measurement with the example of sound, explaining that because we can measure time based on our voice, surely we can measure any interval of time based off any beginning and end. However, he claims that when measuring any form of sound, we are only measuring the impression the sound left on the mind, and thus are only measuring the impression left, not the time itself. Augustine then deduces that time is only produced from memories of impressions. Thus, time is nothing more than a manmade phenomenon that exists only within the realm of the human mind. He explains that this phenomenon exists within the mind in three different forms of reality. The three realities of the mind are comprised of when the mind expects, attends, or remembers. In other words, that what the mind expects, passes by way of what it attends, into being what it remembers. Furthermore, it is only our attention that endures, through which what is still to be makes its way into the state of where it is no more. Therefore, our attention is continually present, as the future is being passed through the present and changes into the past. Augustine concludes that it is this â€Å"tension† or flow that constitutes time, in that time can only be understood in terms of a manmade psychological phenomenon. For Augustine, his philosophical conclusion that time doesn’t exist in any tangible way but is merely a product of the human mind, justifies the claim that God’s existence is outside the realm of human’s perception of time. Augustine expects that from the acceptance of this notion of time, God’s exemption from time in no way means that he is deficient or more limited than humans in any aspect, but that conversely, he is more powerful. Aquinas Aquinas argues the problem of God’s existence in three ways: First, he addresses whether or not the existence of God is self-evident, second, whether or not his existence can be demonstrated and, finally, whether or not God actually exists. In addressing the issue of whether or not God’s existence is self-evident, Aquinas provides three objections in support of the argument. However, the objections are fundamentally flawed based on the premise that one can intellectually declare God doesn’t exist. However, in response, Aquinas counters this notion by redefining the ways in which something can be self-evident into two different categories. He says something can be self-evident in itself and not to us or both itself and us. Therefore, some concepts involving incorporeal substances can only be learned. Also, because God is His own existence, the proposition is no longer one that is self-evident. Thus, God’s self-evident existence can only be proven through demonstrating the natural things known to us, such as his affects; or, it is simply a prima fascie presumption. Aquinas provides the objections to his assertion, which accepts the fact that not everyone defines happiness or God in the same ways, or that Primal Truths are self-evident. Aquinas then discusses whether or not God’s existence can be proven by demonstration. He provides the objection that it can’t, on the fact that God’s existence is based entirely on faith, and that His essence can only be defined in terms of what He is not. Lastly, that no cause can be demonstrated by an affect that isn’t proportional. Aquinas answers, saying that God’s existence can be demonstrated in two ways. The first being through a priori methods, in which knowledge can be obtained without the need of experience, as seen with Anslem’s Ontological argument which proves the existence of God using a definition. The second way, which for Aquinas is the only legitimate way, is through a posteriori methods, in which any knowledge used must be gained through experience. Aquinas adheres to Aristotelian ideas, claiming that there is nothing in the intellect that didn’t once exist in the senses, and thus rejects that God’s existence could be demonstrated through any means other than those acquired through experience. For Aquinas, every effect must be the result of an inherent cause. So, one can prove God’s existence to be self-evident by demonstrating his existence based off the effects he produces. Aquinas continues by claiming that nothing prevents a man from understanding evidence demonstrated scientifically. Therefore, because God can be defined and proven in terms of his effects, we can conclude that God’s existence can be demonstrated. In order to attack the objections to the next question of whether or not God exists, Aquinas provides the proof of God’s existence with, The First Way, which is one of five. The First Way is the most visible and is based of the a posteriori argument of motion. Aquinas assumes that everyone can accept that within the world some things are in motion (as they can be observed), and that a thing’s motion has to have been caused by something other than itself. In other words, except something in motion already in a state of actuality, no motion can be converted from potentiality to actuality without the help of some outside source. Thus, Aquinas is influenced by the Aristotelian view of change, which is based of the assumption that a substance, defined as being a particular thing with a natural unity that persists yet changes in predictable ways, experiences two different forms of change: accidental and substantial. Accidental change occurs when a substance either loses an accidental form and gains another or gains a form without losing another (i.e. cutting one’s hair). Substantial change is the result of something that turns into a whole new being (i.e. a caterpillar into a butterfly). Thus, something that is potentially something else can’t simultaneously be that thing in actuality at the same time. For instance water, which is actually a liquid but potentially ice, cannot change its form into being ice without something acting upon it. Furthermore, building upon Aristotle’s views of change, Aquinas asserts that the same rule governing change can also be applied to the argument of movement. Therefore, if in accordance with the same rule, something in motion cannot simultaneously be both the mover and moved, since something in motion must be put in motion by something other than itself. Thus, in order to find what caused the first movement to occur, one would need to trace the seminal causes of such movement back to, in effect, infinity. However, Aquinas claims it’s illogical to accept that the initial force could only be defined in relation to an infinite chain of causes. Consequently, the only sound conclusion would have to include the existence of a first mover, such as something along the lines of an unmoved mover. For Aquinas, the existence of an unmoved mover/unchanged changer proves the existence of a force that could only be God. Aquinas concludes that only God could be the force behind the existence of some unmoved mover, if motion is created in two different ways. The first is exemplified by the example of some â€Å"X† (i.e. a leg) moving some â€Å"Y† (i.e. a ball). So, that in this first example, even though â€Å"X† causes the movement of â€Å"Y,† it also follows that â€Å"X† is moving too. Subsequently, Aquinas concludes that given the notion that any â€Å"X† which is able to cause â€Å"Y† to move, while at the same time able to remain motionless, could only be the result of a being â€Å"X† equivalent to a much-elevated force that uniquely has to be God.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Industry Analysis for the Airline Industry

An Industry in which I have a potential future interest for an entrepreneurial venture is the ever changing airline industry. Although facing tough numbers after the 9/11 attacks, I have always held an interest for this industry. There are several basic economic characteristics for this industry. There are many opportunities, there are also many threats. The airline industry was heavily regulated by the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) for close to 40 years. Eventually, Congress abandoned airline price and service regulation and disbanded the CAB.Since deregulation the airline industry has becoming increasingly competitive. This industry is also very large and important to the travel and tourism industry. This industry is also very important in developing new business strategies amongst different industries. Before working with any industry, you should take steps to analyze it. The two basic types of aviation are commercial aviation and general aviation. General aviation deals with oper ating you aircraft more for internal purposes. Commercial deals more with carrying passengers or cargo for hire.The scheduled airline industry is more of commercial aviation. The first scheduled airline service started in the 1920's. There have been a lot of eventful history in this industry including periods of rapid growth and prosperity, rapid technological change, federal regulation of prices and routes, entry and exits of firms, bankruptcies, rivalries, financial losses, and problems in safety and security. However, the industry had become one of the most important factors of today's transportation infrastructure.The table below displays how much the industry has grown over the years. Table 7. 1: Annual U. S. Passenger Enplanements by Scheduled Airlines, 1930-2004 (millions of persons) Source: Air Transport Association, Annual Operations, Traffic and Capacity, www. airlines. org/econ/d. aspx? nid=1032 There are many rivalries in the air line industry. The Federal Aviation Admin istration (FAA) divides the firms in the airline industry into three categories. Group 3 consists of airlines that gain at least $1 billion in annual revenue.National, or Group 2, are those who gain between $100 million and $1 billion in annual revenue. The last group is Regional, or Group 1, which gains less than $100 million in annual revenue. In Group 3, United, American, and Delta holds the top 3 spots in revenue, revenue passenger miles, and available seat miles. Porter's five forces is by far the most influential in business strategy. It analyzes business segments and developing entry/exit/investment plans. Below is a model of Porter's five forces for American Airlines, one of the most dominant companies of the airline industry.

Truth is objective Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Truth is objective - Essay Example Let us see what is the established meaning of "Truth" and "Objective" -the objective truth of these two terms, essentially soul mates. Britannica says about truth "In philosophy, the property of statements, thoughts, or propositions that are said, in ordinary discourse, to agree with the facts or to state what is the case. It is a judgment, proposition, or idea that is true or accepted as true. It is the body of true statements and propositions" Webster's dictionary defines the term objective like this: of, relating to, or being an object, phenomenon, or condition in the realm of sensible experience independent of individual thought and perceptible by all observers: having reality independent of the mind; expressing or dealing with facts or conditions as perceived without distortion by personal feelings, prejudices, or interpretations. The opposite of objective is subjective. Objective history does not change. It cannot change. Subjective history is unique to the individual and cannot always be correct. Truth and objectivity go together like a being and its shadow, it will be there when there is the light of enlightenment and it will disappear when there is darkness of ignorance. Truth and subjectivity together will destroy each other, they are intensely opposite to each other. . In the Allegory of the Ca

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Shaping An Individual As A Person And as A Learner Essay

Shaping An Individual As A Person And as A Learner - Essay Example You teach, you should be more goal focused, and you cannot be a good teacher with a bad plan, and it does not mean that having a good plan makes you a good teacher definitely† (Wiggins, 2013). In every sense, curriculum design and implementation shapes an individual as a person and learns. It is evident that curriculum designs can have the profound influence on the lives of students and learners. It may also affect the approach that students have towards life and how they approach life in general. Basically, proper curriculum designs and their effective implementation will positively impact the lives of student and learners. This being the case, the vice versa is true. When I was a kid, I had an experience unlike any of my classmates then. When I was in lower primary school, Most of the mates with whom I was schooling liked reading a lot. It was hard for me to be found studying on my own; much of the things I was interested in related to science, especially physical science. I loved science so much that my dream was always to be a scientist. I liked the practical bits of almost all lessons, including the Physical Education lessons. I never was interested in history and such lessons which demanded that I spend much time reading. This was due to the fact that my teacher used science as an approach to almost all subjects, thus I increasingly disliked non science based subjects. This was advantageous to me since I loved the scientific approach, but was a headache to most of my mates who did not have science related careers as their aspirations. This was in a way not addressing the general students whose likeliness of doing the sciences was low. â€Å"Jesuit’s curriculum  is structured to develop disciplined habits, to stimulate critical thinking, and to develop the skills necessary for the expression of that thinking. The school strives to instill five characteristics in its students. The goal is to educate our young men to be open to growth, intellectually competent.

Monday, August 12, 2019

Techniques used in the separation and identification of chemical Essay

Techniques used in the separation and identification of chemical compound and their real world applications - Essay Example In this technique, the sample to be analyzed is passed through an adsorbent. The components of the mixture will interact with it differently, resulting in separation of the elements (Scoog & Holler, 1992). HPLC has a wide range of application, for example it is used in pharmaceutical companies in the separation of vitamin C, and it also applied in the legal profession by detecting illegal substances such as cocaine in the urine (Ballinger et al., 2011). HPLC can be said to be a mass transfer process that involves adsorption. A typical HPLC instrument has a detector, sampler and a pump. The sampler is used to collect the sample, then the pump is used to pass sample through a mobile phase, which mostly consist of an adsorbent such as silica gel. In the mobile phase, the sample mixture will separate because they have different adsorption rates. It is this difference in adsorption rates that HPLC principle relies on. Finally, the detector is used to separate the different components (Kebbekus & Mitra, 1998). HPLC is one of the most preferred technique in the food industries. It is mostly used in the quality control. HPLC is preferred to other techniques, because it is cheap to maintain and it does not need a very qualified personnel to run it (Ballinger et al., 2011). An example, where HPLC is applied is the sugar cane industries. After sugar cane has been crushed, it is always squeezed to remove the juice. The juice is then treated with chemicals to kill any fungi which is available in it. It is at this stage, where HPLC finds its use. This is because some of the chemicals always remain in the final product. In connection to this, HPLC is always used to determine, if there are any traces of the chemicals in the final sugar. If there are any, it is then taken back for treatment (Scoog &Holler, 1992). The main limitation of this technique is that it cannot be used for very complex chemical elements. In